Wrought Iron”, originally a French word, is a processing technique where iron is heated and hammered. In this method, iron is heated unit
it reaches a very high temperature in a furnace and it is processed on an anvil by hammering. İron work, which is known as an eastern art,
was spread to Europe during Indo-European invasions. Since iron is oxidized and disappears in nature, unfortunately not many examples have
reached from ancient times to our time. In terms of technical development, it became possible to inflict regular and strong knocks to iron
with invention of mills and then eccentric presses, thus desired shapes could be given to iron which was heated in furnace and hammered in
presses and they could be clamped together. Artisans gained experience as they processed iron and produced new techniques. With the use of
“riveting” and “clamping” methods in the end of 12th century, combining techniques were also developed.
Riveting method: The iron works made with this method gained delicacy with time and some artisans mastered on add twigs together decorated
with this method. This form of ornamentation was developed especially in French, Austria, Italy and Spain and successful products of wrought
iron technique based on processing hot iron begin to emerge. Wrought iron stair rails and doors begin to decorate churches, castles,
mansions and hotels; wrought iron porches and canopies decorated building entrances; wrought iron urban furniture and rails decorated metro
stations and streets and alleys of cities.
Clamping method: Wrought iron railings where this method of adding iron sheets together that emerged in French in the 17th century
were excessively used caused emergence of new examples which were not seen in iron work having usually a simple style. As a result, works
made of wrought iron became very popular, this interest led to use of wrought iron with hammered iron sheets and enriched with ornaments
in curvy twig shape, and later generated an understanding where iron was decorated with different materials. As a result, chandeliers,
sconces, candlesticks, tables, bedheads and other accessories and objects found their place in interiors. The works made by French immigrant
Tijou in England between 1689 and 1710, choir division wrought iron rails made by Flambard (1738-1749), and rails of monumental value
made by Jean Lamour between 1750 and 1758 for Stanislas played important role for iron work to reach a level of artistry.
In the beginning of 20th century, Emile Robert showed his master in this field in many structure (architecture), he decorated his
works with unique floral motives by shaping flowers, leaves and petals with hammer and then clamping them together. Unique works by Gaudi
in Spain, and by Alessandro Mazzucotelli and his apprentices in Italy are among important works in this field. Successful works of Brandt,
Desvallieres', Subes in 1925 Paris International Exhibition have been a milestone in development of iron work.
The Turks owes the civilization they established to their skills in processing iron and hardening it through watering. The reason
why the Turks, who were remember with iron most and for their skills in iron work by all the world’s nations, did not have a place
in artistic iron work is related with the fact that the Ottoman Empire was in a period of collapse when the movement of artistic work
emerged. Despite the pioneers of iron work was Europeans, especially the French, the Turks adopted a unique style in the field. Compared
to the examples in Europe, the Turks preferred to use geometric shapes, simple and plain lines. It is possible to see these examples in
many historical works such as mosques, madrasa, baths and palaces and also in waterfront residences and mansions. However, unfortunately,
there are not sufficient academic studies on the Turkish iron work history and those works of Greek, Armenian and Turkish artisans who worked
in this area were not recorded.
Each artist developed new methods and styles, inspired by emotions of the society and conditions of the period he lived in.
Today art movements we classified as classic, modern, traditional, Art Nouveau and Art Deco were generated this way. Iron work is a
field that is open to developing new styles today as in 18th century. Blacksmiths did not hesitate to use sources of oxygen or electricity
among new techniques that did not harm the quality of their work and benefited from innovations such as machine hammer,
various piercing and cutting machines that took the place of heavy hammer of the medieval era. Iron work is among indispensable elements
of today architecture with its artistic and aesthetic features as well as its structural and functional features in interior and exterior